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Impact of Technology On Criminal Law

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Technology is shaking things up in Australian criminal law. Think about all the evidence from our phones, computers, and social media – it’s everywhere, and it’s changing how we do things in court. Technology is a part of every area of our lives nowadays, and that is no less true in criminal law. Cybercrime is on the rise, with identity theft and other new forms of online theft creating new crime scenes for our criminal justice system to deal with. As Cybercrime rates go up, our police officers are using more and more digital evidence from smartphones, social media profiles and computers. Navigating our ever-changing criminal justice system has never been so important. With technological advancements presenting new forms of criminal activity, the legal landscape is extremely dynamic.

However, with this, has also come raised concerns about privacy concerns as police officers and law enforcement agencies have more and more access to our online information. Electronic discovery tools have become essential in managing vast amounts of electronic data in legal proceedings, and the emergence of blockchain and cryptocurrencies has presented unique challenges in cases involving financial crimes.

Courts are also more and more moving online, making legal proceedings much faster, as online filing systems and videoconferencing are more and more utilised. In short, technology is significantly impacting criminal law, changing almost everything that we do! This article will dive into some of those changes. For any questions, or concerns about technology in the courts or if you feel you have been the victim of a cyber crime, reach out to Jameson Law today for a free consultation!

How are Police Officers and Law Enforcement Professionals using Technological Advancements?

Digital Forensics:

In New South Wales, police officers and law enforcement agencies rely on state-of-the-art digital forensics tools to help analyse and combat crime that can be found in electronic evidence. Nowadays, electronic evidence could be anything that exists online! Text messages between two people, a PDF file, and messages on WhatsApp, Snapchat or Imessage all could be used as electronic evidence. Moreover, things like CCTV cameras and their footage, or GPS data from a phone or running watch could be used by police forces to help discern criminal behaviour or used in a computer forensics case.

These tools are instrumental in uncovering critical information stored on various devices, such as smartphones, computers, and storage media. By meticulously analyzing digital footprints, officers can trace communication records, retrieve deleted data, and establish connections between suspects and criminal activities. This technology not only helps police officers conduct investigations faster, but it also ensures the preservation and integrity of electronic evidence, ultimately helping people strengthen their legal cases.

These tools are really helpful for finding important information on things like phones, computers, and storage devices. Police use them to look closely at digital clues, like messages and things that were deleted, to connect suspects to crimes. This technology makes investigations faster and keeps electronic evidence safe, which helps catch bad guys and make legal cases stronger.

Here are 3 examples of digital forensics being put to use in the creation of a ‘digital crime scene.’

  1. In a workplace harassment case, a series of offensive text messages sent by the accused employee to the victim’s mobile phone served as compelling electronic evidence. These messages not only substantiated the plaintiff’s claims but also established a pattern of harassment, contributing significantly to the case’s outcome.
  2. In a complex fraud investigation, electronic evidence took the form of bank transaction records and digital financial statements. These documents were instrumental in illustrating the suspect’s embezzlement activities, offering a clear financial trail that supported the prosecution’s case.
  3. In a high-stakes criminal trial, electronic evidence came in the form of surveillance camera footage from a convenience store. This footage captured the defendant’s actions during the alleged robbery, providing indisputable visual proof that played a crucial role in the court’s decision-making process.


Surveillance technology plays a pivotal role in maintaining public safety. In New South Wales, a network of cameras, both stationary and mobile, assists law enforcement in closely monitoring public spaces. These cameras are vital tools for identifying potential suspects, tracking their movements, and gathering crucial evidence. Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR) technology is also widely employed to identify and locate vehicles associated with criminal activities, allowing officers to swiftly respond to incidents and bolster security across the state.

The police’s reliance on technology in criminal investigations has evolved significantly. In the past, the call to action was simple: “If you’ve seen something, contact Crime Stoppers.” But today, the landscape has changed dramatically, with technology becoming a critical tool in crime-fighting.

Citizens’ use of technology, including dashcams, smartphones, CCTV in homes and businesses, body-worn cameras, and even cyclists with head cameras, has created a vast reservoir of potential evidence, changing how police approach crime scenes and dramatically altering criminal justice throughout the state. According to the University of South Australia’s Professor Rick Sarre, “So much is recorded, and cameras can’t lie.” Nowadays, it’s not just traditional cameras that are being used by police forces to help bring about criminal justice. Fitness trackers, smartphones, dash cameras and even Google Nest cameras are all tools that help police officers bring about criminal justice.

The significance of dashcam footage for law enforcement has grown substantially. In-car computers and in-car computer cameras have been a huge technological advancement that helps criminal justice cases. While it aids in resolving traffic-related violations, its role extends to solving homicide cases as well. As Professor Murray Lee from the University of Sydney pointed out, citizens, often without realizing it, are becoming integral to what he terms a “web of surveillance,” which provides vital evidence for the police. Nevertheless, it’s essential to recognize that there are constraints, and the public frequently undervalues the potential of fundamental technology in the realm of crime investigation.

However, Technology in criminal justice is also a double-edged sword. While it enhances surveillance and evidence collection, it also raises significant privacy concerns about the intrusiveness of police in our daily lives. The rapid advancement of technology can outpace legal regulations, potentially leading to abuse of this technology. If you are the accused person in a case and feel you have been treated unjustly, reach out to Jameson Law today for a free consultation. Our criminal lawyers and experienced in dealing with technologically complex matters and are looking forward to helping you navigate any legal problem. Remember, we are in it to win it!

Biometric Identification:

High-tech systems like fingerprint and facial recognition are really important for identifying people quickly and accurately. Police can use these tools to find out if someone they’ve caught is already in the database of known criminals, making it easier to catch people with warrants. This technology helps keep the public safe by making sure that criminals are identified and arrested faster, and it also reduces the chances of confusing one person for another by mistake.

While this does help aid criminal justice and protect human life from some criminal activities, there have been some concerns about the usage of artificial intelligence in facial recognition. As the Australian Human Rights Commissioner Edward Santow recently said

At the moment, there are not strong and clear enough legal protections in place to prevent the misuse of facial recognition in high-stakes areas like policing or law enforcement.

Predictive Policing:

Machine learning and predictive analytics are changing how police work is done, and they are becoming more common in Australia too. These tools analyze past crime data to predict where and when crimes might happen next. Police use this information to plan and send officers to those areas, which helps prevent crimes and make their response faster. Predictive policing is not just about keeping people safe; it also helps police use their resources wisely, so they can focus on the places that need it most and reduce crime rates effectively.

Proactive policing, while aimed at preventing crime, does have its drawbacks. One significant concern is the potential for bias in policing practices. When law enforcement relies heavily on predictive analytics and deploys resources to “hotspot” areas, there’s a risk of disproportionately targeting specific communities or demographics. This can exacerbate existing biases in the criminal justice system, leading to over-policing of marginalized groups and potentially discriminatory outcomes. In the case of Australia, an Australian institute of Criminology paper found that this might have a disproportionate impact on First Nations communities in Australia.

The reliance on historical crime data may perpetuate the cycle of criminalization in certain neighbourhoods, as increased police presence can result in more arrests and convictions, even for minor offences, further widening the gap in equity and justice.

Evidence Management:

Electronic systems have made a big difference in how courts operate, making things run much more smoothly. With the use of electronic filing and case management systems, there’s less paperwork to deal with, which lightens the administrative load. Lawyers and litigants can now submit documents online, which speeds things up.

These systems also help keep track of case progress, schedules, and deadlines, keeping court proceedings well-organized. Additionally, using digital evidence in court has become the norm, making it easier to present and examine evidence during trials without the need for physical exhibits, making the whole process more efficient.

How Technology is Helping our criminal justice system

Technology and the courts

Technology has played a pivotal role in revolutionizing the efficiency of court proceedings in New South Wales. These innovations span from the adoption of electronic filing systems to the acceptance of digital evidence, resulting in a more streamlined and accessible judicial process.

One noteworthy advancement in enhancing efficiency is the implementation of electronic filing systems. These systems enable lawyers and litigants to submit legal documents electronically, greatly reducing reliance on traditional paper-based processes. For instance, the Online Registry platform facilitates the seamless submission of court forms, digital document sharing, and online fee payments, and provides immediate access to case information. This eliminates the need for laborious paperwork, and expediting document processing. Both legal professionals and the public benefit from increased accessibility, minimizing the necessity for physical visits to the courthouse.

Furthermore, the integration of digital evidence into court proceedings has had a profound impact on efficiency. Judges and lawyers now regularly admit electronic evidence, including emails, text messages, and digital photos. This shift simplifies the presentation and examination of evidence during trials, eliminating the need for cumbersome physical exhibits. Legal professionals can efficiently access, display, and discuss digital evidence in a clear and organized manner, saving valuable time and enhancing the accuracy and accessibility of legal records.

Concerns about Privacy

The rapid integration of technology into criminal law practices in Australia has undoubtedly brought about numerous benefits, but it has also raised a lot of concerns that people have about privacy. privacy concerns.

One big concern that people have revolves around the collection and utilization of personal data. With the rise of cameras that exist everywhere, automatic license plate recognition systems, and facial recognition technology, citizens’ movements and identities are constantly monitored. Sometimes one might wonder, am I being watched? All your usage of your phone, social media or electronic devices might in some way be used against you.

This constant surveillance can lead to privacy violations, as individuals may be unaware of the extent to which their data is captured and analyzed. As such, it becomes crucial to strike a balance between public safety and the right to privacy, ensuring that data collection adheres to strict regulations and safeguards. This is an area of law within Australian criminal justice that is still developing.

Another pressing issue lies in the storage and security of digital evidence. The vast amounts of electronic data involved in criminal cases, from text messages to financial records, are susceptible to breaches and unauthorized access. Ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of such evidence becomes paramount, demanding robust cybersecurity measures and stringent data protection protocols.


Technology has made big changes in how criminal law works in Australia. It helps manage evidence, makes court processes easier with online tools, and gives police better tools like facial recognition and predictive analytics. But with its huge benefits, it also brings up issues about privacy and data security.

Technology has changed how organized crime works in Australia. Criminal groups now use things like secret messaging apps and the dark web to do illegal things, which makes it tough for the police to catch them. They also use cryptocurrencies to hide money, which is hard to track. Cybercrime, where they steal money online, has also increased. To fight these changes, the police are using new technology, but we also need new laws and to work with other countries to stop these criminals.


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